Ancient Roman Coin – Emperor Maximianus (285-310 AD) Jupiter Standing
Ancient Roman Coin – Emperor Maximianus (285-310 AD) with Reverse Jupiter Standing
Maximianus 285-310 A.D. Reverse reads: CONCORDIA MILITVM [To the unity of the army] Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre, presenting Victory on globe to emperor, standing right.
Maximianus, not to be confused with 2nd century emperor Marcus Valerius Maximianus, was born in about 250 A.D. His reign is noteworthy for the fact that he ruled during three different intervals. From 286 to 305 A.D., under Diocletian, he was Caesar and then Augustus in the east. From 306 to 308 A.D. he was self-proclaimed Augustus. And in 310 A.D. again declared himself Augustus. The first two of these three reigns ended in his forced abdication. The third ended with his suicide in 310 A.D., at the command of Constantine the Great. Maximianus’ feud with Constantine was years in the making. Emperor Diocletian, desirous to avoid a return to the civil wars which plagued Rome during the Third Century Crisis, established a tetrarchy, pursuant to which Rome would be governed by two senior Augustii and two junior Ceasars. Diocletian would rule from the east, with Caesar Constantius Chlorus underneath him, while Maximianus would rule from the west, backed by Caesar Galerius. It was anticipated that in the event of the death of an Augustus, his junior Caesar would replace him, the role of Caesar then falling, in the case of Constantius Chlorus, to his son, Constantine. But Galerius convinced Diocletian and Maximianus to pass over Constantine. At the death of Diocletian then, Constantius Chlorus was declared Augustus, but the ambitious Constantine was not permitted to assume the role Caesar.